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Analytical Chemistry is the Study of the Separation, Identification, and Quantification of Chemical Components

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Analytical chemistry may be defined as the study of separation, identification, and the quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials1 constituted of one or more substances. Analytical chemistry is divided in to two main types, qualitative analysis that is to say the identification of the chemical species present the sample, and quantitative analysis determines the amount of certain element or compound in the substance i.e., sample. Pharmaceutical analysis1-3 plays a vital role today and can be considered as an interdisciplinary subject. Pharmaceutical analysis derives its principles from different branches of science like Chemistry, Microbiology, Nuclear Science and Physics, etc. Analytical method is a definite application of a technique to work out an analytical problem. Analytical instrumentation plays a prominent role in the production and evaluation of novel products and in the protection of consumers and the environment. This instrumentation provides the lower detection limits required to assure safe foods, drugs, air and water.
1.02 Typical instrumental techniques:

The methods of estimation of drugs are separated into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological ones. Of these methods, generally physical and physicochemical methods are used the most. Physical methods of analysis involve the studying of the different physical properties of a substance. They are determination of the solubility, transparency or degree of turbidity, color, density or specific gravity (for liquids), melting, freezing, boiling points and moisture content. Physicochemical methods4,5 are used to study the physical phenomena that occur as a result of chemical reactions. In the Physicochemical methods Optical (...


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... suitable for the later analysis. In some instances, the binding of the active ingredients to polar excipients such as lactose and starch reduces the effectiveness of extraction. This becomes significant particularly when the dose of drug is very tiny. Generally used method for reducing the adsorption losses and increasing the selectivity of the extraction is two-phase extraction. Here one of the solvents is always water. This solvent dissolves lactose, which is generally the main component of the excipients thereby affording favorable conditions for extraction of the drug by the other solvent, which is immiscible with water. Starch, which is also vital from the point of view of adsorption losses, can be dissolved by treatment with diastase. The organic solvent is typically chloroform but ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, iso-octane and a few others have also been used.



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