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Essay A History of African Americans after Reconstruction

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History of African Americans after Reconstruction


During reconstruction the United States was divided on social issues, presidential campaigns were won and loss on these issues during this period. The struggle for development of African Americans and how they initiated change in political, economic, educational, and social conditions to shape their future and that of the United States. (Dixon, 2000) The South’s attempts to recover from the Civil war included determining what to do with newly freed slaves and finding labor to replace them. The task of elevating the Negro from slave to citizen was the most enormous one which had ever confronted the country. Local governments implemented mechanisms of discrimination to combat citizenship and equality such as Jim Crow laws and the KKK (Bowles, 2011) in place in the south to ensure the white citizen superiority, these inherent beliefs continued for generations. African Americans, believed to be second class citizens were denied their unalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. (Dixon, 2000) Penniless, African Americans left their plantations with nothing more than the shirts on their backs. As African Americans, the lack of voter’s rights lent to an unequal balance in politics to which ensured improper representation in their communities.” Separate but Equal laws” implemented by congress excluded the Negro from gaining a proper education, proper medical treatment and quality services provided in their communities that their white counterparts enjoyed. Though free, African Americans continued struggle for independence raises the question did the emancipation proclamation really free the slaves? Several decades since the reconstruction era ,have found African Am...


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...o CA: Bridgepoint education.
DARDEN, G. (2009). The new empire in the south:: Jim Crow in the Global Frontier of High Imperialism and Decolonization. Southern Quarterly, pp. , 46(3), 8-25.
Dixon, M. A. ( 2000). Journey to the Promised Land : The African American Struggle for Development since the Civil War. Westport, CT, USA:: Greenwood Press,.
Gossett, T. S. (1997). The History of an Idea in America. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press.
Heale, J. (1999). Franklin D. Roosevelt : New Deal and War. London GBR: Routlege.
Himmelberg, R. f. (11/2000). Great Depression and the New Deal. Westport, CT, USA: greenwood press.
Kelley, g. G. (2005). To Make Our World Anew, Volume II : A History of African Americans Since 1880. Cary NC: Oxford UNiversity press.
Snead, d. l. (2012). John F. Kennedy : The New Frontier President. Hauppage New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.




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